Scientific publications on the effects of artificial microwaves on living beings

Here is a non-exhaustive list of scientific publications on the subject and the general conclusions of these publications.
You can read the full study by clicking on it, except for the non-free ones, the link will redirect you to the site where they are available.

Almost none of these publications clearly incriminate radiations, but there is much suspicion of the effects of artificial microwaves on living beings. Some papers question microwaves, but often at higher powers than recommended by global exposure standards.
That said, these studies clearly show that there is a lot of evidence indicating that prolonged exposure to microwaves can cause DNA damage (human and non-human), which is often reversible if the exposure stops, thanks to the mechanisms of self-regeneration of living beings.
But for living beings with weak immunity, this self-regeneration can be compromised and considering that it is hard, in the real world, to stop this exposure, it is sometimes not possible.
Some studies observe effects, but conclude that they are not considered significant.

At low levels of exposure, there are more publications on human and subjective feelings. However, these feelings all go in the same direction: increased irritability, symptoms of fatigue, headache, weakened immunity, etc. when microwaves sources are closer.

There are also statistical studies covering more than 10 years indicating that there are very clearly incidences of increased biological effects, but unfortunately there is not enough data to prove it scientifically and with certainty.

Effects of artificial microwaves on living beings

DNA fragmentation in human fibroblasts under extremely low frequency electromagnetic field exposure
Our data confirm that intermittent (but not continuous) exposure of human primary fibroblasts to a 50 Hz EMF at a flux density of 1 mT induces a slight but significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the Comet assay, and we provide first evidence for this to be caused by the magnetic rather than the electric field. Moreover, we show that EMF-induced responses in the Comet assay are dependent on cell proliferation, suggesting that processes of DNA replication rather than the DNA itself may be affected.

Cell Type-Dependent Induction of DNA Damage by 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields Does Not Result in Significant Cellular Dysfunctions
RF-EMF induces DNA damage in a cell type-dependent manner, but the elevated γH2AX foci formation in HSF cells does not result in significant cellular dysfunctions.

The effect of electromagnetic fields on oxidative DNA damage
The results of the study showed that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields enhanced the effect of oxidative stress on DNA damage and supported the idea obtained from the previous studies on an increasing effect of electromagnetic fields on the concentration and the life-time of free radicals.

Preliminary report: Symptoms associated with mobile phone use
Following isolated reports of headache-like symptoms arising in some users, a survey has been conducted to characterize the symptoms sometimes associated with mobile phone usage. … There were several reports suggestive of intra-cranial effects. … Cranial and other diverse symptoms may arise associated with mobile phone usage. Physicians and users alike should be alert to this. Further work is needed to determine the range of effects, their mechanism and the possible implications for safety limits of RFR.

Prevalence of Headache among Handheld Cellular Telephone Users in Singapore: A Community Study
We carried out a cross-sectional community study in Singapore to determine the prevalence of specific central nervous system (CNS) symptoms among handheld cellular telephone (HP) users compared to nonusers and to study the association of risk factors and CNS symptoms among HP users. … Headache was the most prevalent symptom among HP users compared to non-HP users, with an adjusted prevalence rate ratio of 1.31 [95% confidence interval, 1.00–1.70]. There is a significant increase in the prevalence of headache with increasing duration of usage (in minutes per day). Prevalence of headache was reduced by more than 20% among those who used hand-free equipment for their cellular telephones as compared to those who never use the equipment. The use of HPs is not associated with a significant increase of CNS symptoms other than headache.

Symptoms experienced in connection with mobile phone use
Thirty-one percent of the respondents in Norway and 13% of those in Sweden had experienced at least one symptom in connection with MP use. Next to the sensations of warmth on the ear and behind/around the ear, burning sensations in the facial skin and headaches were most commonly reported. Most symptoms usually began during or within half an hour after the call and lasted for up to 2 h. Relatively few had consulted a physician or been on sick leave because of the symptoms, but about 45% among those with an MP attributed symptom had taken steps to reduce the symptom. These results suggest an awareness of the symptoms, but not necessarily a serious health problem.

Subjective symptoms, sleeping problems, and cognitive performance in subjects living near mobile phone base stations
Despite very low exposure to HF-EMF, effects on wellbeing and performance cannot be ruled out, as shown by recently obtained experimental results; however, mechanisms of action at these low levels are unknown.

Mobile Telephone Base-Stations: Effects on Health and Wellbeing
Despite influences of confounding variables, including fear of adverse effects, a significant relation to measured power-density was found for cardiovascular symptoms and perceptual speed.
This pilot study was explorative, hence no far reaching conclusions can be drawn. However, effects on wellbeing and performance of very low levels of exposure to emissions from base-stations cannot be ruled out and should further be studied.

The Microwave Syndrome: A Preliminary Study in Spain
The present results demonstrate a significant correlation between several symptoms of what is called microwave sickness and the microwave power density associated with the Base Station located on a hill at the edge of the town. The severity of the symptoms weakens for people who live far away, at a distance greater than 250m from the main. EMF source and at a power density lower than 0.1 μW/cm 2. …
There is a large and coherent body of evidence of biological mechanisms that support the conclusion of a plausible, logical, and causal relationship between RF exposure and neurological disease. Hence it is possible that cell sites are causing adverse health effects. Public health surveys of people living in the vicinity of cell site BSs should be carried out immediately, and continued over the next 2 decades. Prompt effects such as miscarriage, cardiac disruption, sleep disturbance, and chronic fatigue could well be early indicators of adverse health effects.

The Microwave Syndrome: Further aspects of a spanish study
The adjusted (sex, age, distance) logistic regression model showed statistically significant positive exposure-response associations between the E-field and the following variables: fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems. The inclusion of the distance, which might be a proxy for the sometimes raised “concerns explanation”, did not alter the model substantially. These results support the first statistical analysis based on two groups … Based on the data of this study the advice would be to strive for levels not higher than 0.02 V/m for the sum total, which is equal to a power density of 0.0001 μW/cm2 or 1 μW/m2, which is the indoor exposure value for GSM base stations proposed on empirical evidence by the Public Health Office of the Government of Salzburg in 2002.

Specific Health Symptoms and Cell Phone Radiation in Selbitz (Bavaria, Germany) – Evidence of a Dose-Response Relationship
With the Federal Immission Control Ordinance (26. BlmSchV), the federal regulation maker establishes exposure limit regulations for electromagnetic fields whose specifications are required by acts and the constitution. But as the presented paper shows once more, a clearly increasing incidence of disease is already taking place far below legally binding exposure guideline limits.
Even if in legal terms, this is not yet proof for an individual-specific evidence of damage, the presented investigations make it clear that the conclusions drawn by the federal regulation maker from the results of the German Mobile Phone Programme, according to which no health risk is to be expected below the exposure limits of the 26. BlmSchV, are scientifically and legally unjustifiable.
From a legal perspective, it should be noted here that the current exposure limit regulations basically do not provide sufficient protection against health risks. Insofar as official agencies still suggest that the exposure limits of the 26. BlmSchV would be precautionary limits, these limits are now disproven – among others – through our investigation, as it showed a significantly increased health risk in the vicinity of cell phone base stations.

Neurobehavioral effects among inhabitants around mobile phone base stations
Inhabitants living nearby mobile phone base stations are at risk for developing neuropsychiatric problems and some changes in the performance of neurobehavioral functions either by facilitation or inhibition. So, revision of standard guidelines for public exposure to RER from mobile phone base station antennas and using of NBTB for regular assessment and early detection of biological effects among inhabitants around the stations are recommended.

How does long term exposure to base stations and mobile phones affect human hormone profiles?
This study showed significant decrease in volunteers’ ACTH, cortisol, thyroid hormones, prolactin for young females, and testosterone levels.
The present study revealed high RFR effects on pituitary–adrenal axis.

Study of the health of people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations, Influences of distance and sex
Comparisons of complaint frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation to the distance from base stations and sex show significant (p <0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base stations, up through 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disruption, discomfort, etc., 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p < 0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disruption, depression, discomfort and visual disrupti ons. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in the vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, the of minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.

Sleep Disturbances in the Vicinity of the Short-Wave Broadcast Transmitter Schwarzenburg
The series of studies gives strong evidence of a causal relationship between operation of a short-wave radio transmitter and sleep disturbances in the surrounding population, but there is insufficient evidence to distinguish clearly between a biological and a psychological effect.

Changes of Clinically Important Neurotransmitters under the Influence of Modulated RF Fields – A Long-term Study under Real-life Conditions
This follow-up of 60 participants over one and a half years shows a significant effect on the adrenergic system after the installation of a new cell phone base station in the village of Rimbach (Bavaria).
After the activation of the GSM base station, the levels of the stress hormones adrenaline and noradrenaline increased significantly during the first six months; the levels of the precursor dopamine decreased substantially. The initial levels were not restored even after one and a half years. As an indicator of the dysregulated chronic imbalance of the stress system, the phenylethylamine (PEA) levels dropped significantly until the end of the study period.
The effects showed a dose-response relationship and occurred well below current limits for technical RF radiation exposures. Chronic dysregulation of the catecholamine system has great relevance for health and is well known to damage human health in the long run.

Increased incidence of cancer near a cell-phone transmitter station
The aim of this study is to investigate whether there is an increased cancer incidence in populations, living in a small area, and exposed to RF radiation from a cell-phone transmitter station. … The study indicates an association between increased incidence of cancer and living in proximity to a cell-phone transmitter station.

Non-thermal effects and mechanisms of interaction between electromagnetic fields and living matter
This book provide updated information concerning mechanism of interaction between non ionising radiation fields and living matter, with particular reference to potential non-thermal toxic effects.
The scientific knowledge available today regarding electromagnetic fields remains limited. Nevertheless, on the basis of recent epidemiological studies, and while awaiting new experimental data, it is advisable to limit exposure to electromagnetic fields as much as possible. This is especially true for children and adolescents, the most vulnerable segments of the population, and has been recommended by both the Swedish and UK health authorities.

Disturbance of the immune system by electromagnetic fields-A potentially underlying cause for cellular damage and tissue repair reduction which could lead to disease and impairment.
Obviously, biologically based exposure standards are needed to prevent disruption of normal body processes and potential adverse health effects of chronic exposure. Based on this review, as well as the reviews in the recent Bioinitiative Report … , it must be concluded that the existing public safety limits are inadequate to protect public health, and that new public safety limits, as well as limits on further deployment of untested technologies, are warranted.

Radiofrequency and Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Blood-Brain Barrier
Possible mechanisms for the interactions between electromagnetic fields and the living organisms are discussed. Demonstrated effects on the blood-brain barrier, as well as a series of other effects upon biology, have caused societal anxiety. Continued research is needed to come to an understanding of how these possible effects can be neutralized, or at least reduced. Furthermore, it should be kept in mind that proven effects on biology also should have positive potentials, e.g., for medical use.

The Mammalian Brain in the Electromagnetic Fields Designed by Man with Special Reference to Blood-Brain Barrier Function, Neuronal Damage and Possible Physical Mechanisms
Even if many studies have seen no effects of the EMFs upon biology, an abundance of scientific reports in respected journals have shown significant, though often weak, effects upon cells in vitro, in experimental animals and also in humans. … If the man made EMFs, such as those utilized in mobile communication, even at extremely low SAR values, causes the users’ own albumin to leak out through the BBB, which is meant to protect the brain, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue. There they concentrate in, and damage, the neurones and glial cells of the brain according to our studies. It cannot be excluded that this, (especially after many years intense use) may promote the development of autoimmune and neuro-degenerative diseases!

(Original language: German) Synergistic effects of high-frequency electromagnetic fields in combination with carcinogenic substances – co-carcinogenicity or tumor promotion?
The results clearly and with great statistical significance show that the DNA was not more damaged by the electromagnetic fields in any of the tissues examined than in the tissues of non-exposed animals. According to these findings, the carcinogenic effects of electromagnetic fields in the frequency range of the UMTS standard can be excluded as the cause of the results observed earlier. Therefore, further studies must now clarify which mechanisms of action are responsible for tumor promotion.

Biological effects of electromagnetic fields
In conclusion, the use of different sources of electro-magnetic fields, have caused great contradictions in the international literature where experiments are not always reproducible, so the topic of biological responses to electromagnetic fields is viewed with great skepticism. There still is a need for further elucidation of the role of ELF in biological and medical systems.

Polarization: A Key Difference between Man-made and Natural Electromagnetic Fields, in regard to Biological Activity
In the present study we analyze the role of polarization in the biological activity of Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs)/Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR). All types of man-made EMFs/EMR – in contrast to natural EMFs/EMR – are polarized. Polarized EMFs/EMR can have increased biological activity, due to:
1) Ability to produce constructive interference effects and amplify their intensities at many locations.
2) Ability to force all charged/polar molecules and especially free ions within and around all living cells to oscillate on parallel planes and in phase with the applied polarized field. Such ionic forced-oscillations exert additive electrostatic forces on the sensors of cell membrane electro-sensitive ion channels, resulting in their irregular gating and consequent disruption of the cell’s electrochemical balance. These features render man-made EMFs/EMR more bioactive than natural non-ionizing EMFs/EMR. This explains the increasing number of biological effects discovered during the past few decades to be induced by man-made EMFs, in contrast to natural EMFs in the terrestrial environment which have always been present throughout evolution, although human exposure to the latter ones is normally of significantly higher intensities/energy and longer durations. Thus, polarization seems to be a trigger that significantly increases the probability for the initiation of biological/health effects.

The Biological Effects of Weak Electromagnetic Fields
1. Well replicated studies have shown that weak electromagnetic fields remove calcium ions bound to the membranes of living cells, making them more likely to tear, develop temporary pores and leak.
2. DNAase (an enzyme that destroys DNA) leaking through the membranes of lysosomes (small bodies in living cells packed with digestive enzymes) explains the fragmentation of DNA seen in cells exposed to mobile phone signals.
When this occurs in the germ line (the cells that give rise to eggs and sperm), it reduces fertility and predicts genetic damage in future generations.
3. Leakage of calcium ions into the cytosol (the main part of the cell) acts as a metabolic stimulant, which accounts for reported accelerations of growth and healing, but it also promotes the growth of tumours.
4. Leakage of calcium ions into neurones (brain cells) generates spurious action potentials (nerve impulses) accounting for pain and other neurological symptoms in electrosensitive individuals. It also degrades the signal to noise ratio of the brain making it less likely to respond adequately to weak stimuli. This may be partially responsible the increased accident rate of drivers using mobile phones.
5. A more detailed examination of the molecular mechanisms explains many of the seemingly weird characteristics of electromagnetic exposure, e.g. why weak fields are more effective than strong ones, why some frequencies such as 16Hz are especially potent and why pulsed fields do more damage.

However, it seems possible that at least some cases electrosensitivity could be due to low levels of ionised calcium in the blood exacerbating the electromagnetic effects. If so, it may be possible to relieve some or all of the symptoms by conventional treatment for hypocalcemia.

Case-control study of the association between malignant brain tumours diagnosed between 2007 and 2009 and mobile and cordless phone use
This study confirmed previous results of an association between mobile and cordless phone use and malignant brain tumours. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that RF-EMFs play a role both in the initiation and promotion stages of carcinogenesis.

Mobile phones, cordless phones and rates of brain tumors in different age groups in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Swedish Cancer Register during 1998-2015
The results indicate underreporting of brain tumor cases to the Cancer Register. The real incidence would be higher. Thus, incidence trends based on the Cancer Register should be used with caution. Use of wireless phones should be considered in relation to the change of incidence rates.

IEEE Microwave 2018/09-10 – Clear Evidence of Cell-Phone RF Radiation Cancer Risk
Malignant schwannoma in rat hearts were the most salient findings from the NTP RF bioassay. Acoustic schwannomas in human brains and malignant schwannomas in rat hearts were independently observed from two different body tissues in humans and rats.
There could actually be a link between Schwann cells that wrap around both nerve tissues in the heart and along the auditory nervous system.

Now that the NTP review panel has concluded there is clear evidence of carcinogenicity from long-term RF exposure in rats, is it conceivable that the IARC would upgrade its epidemiology-based classification of RF exposure to the next level of carcinogenicity to humans?

Effects of artificial microwaves on insects and animals

Oxidative DNA damage in rats exposed to extremely low frequency electro magnetic fields
Our results showed that the exposure to ELF-EMF induced oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation (LPO).

Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation.
Effects on cognitive functions were evaluated in the episodic-like memory test. In our study, GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02). Detecting the place in which an object was presented was not affected by GSM exposure. Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).

Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication
The exposure was 915 MHz microwaves either pulse modulated (PW) at 217 Hz with 0.57 ms pulse width, at 50 Hz with 6.6 ms pulse width or continuous wave (CW). The frequency of pathological rats (0.17) among controls in the various groups is not significantly different. The frequency of pathological rats was 170/481 (0.35 ± 0.03) among rats exposed to pulse modulated (PW) and 74/149 (0.50 ± 0.07) among rats exposed to continuous wave exposure (CW). These results are both highly significantly different to their corresponding controls (p < 0.0001) and the frequency of pathological rats after exposure to pulsed radiation (PW) is significantly less (p < 0.002) than after exposure to continuous radiation (CW).

Increased blood–brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone
Albumin extravasation was enhanced in the mobile phone exposed rats as compared to sham controls after this 7-day recovery period (Fisher’s exact probability test, p = 0.04 and Kruskal–Wallis, p = 0.012), at the SAR-value of 12 mW/kg (Mann–Whitney, p = 0.007) and with a trend of increased albumin extravasation also at the SAR-values of 0.12 mW/kg and 120 mW/kg. There was a low, but significant correlation between the exposure level (SAR-value) and occurrence of focal albumin extravasation (r s = 0.33; p = 0.04).
The present findings are in agreement with our earlier studies where we have seen increased BBB permeability immediately and 14 days after exposure. We here discuss the present findings as well as the previous results of altered BBB permeability from our and other laboratories.

Nerve Cell Damage in Mammalian Brain after Exposure to Microwaves from GSM Mobile Phones
Three groups each of eight rats were exposed for 2 hr to Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) mobile phone electromagnetic fields of different strengths. We found highly significant (p < 0.002) evidence for neuronal damage in the cortex, hippocampus, and basal ganglia in the brains of exposed rats.

Non-thermal effects of EMF upon the mammalian brain
If mobile communication, even at extremely low SAR values, causes the users ́ own albumin to leak out through the BBB, which is meant to protect the brain, also other unwanted and toxic molecules in the blood, may leak into the brain tissue and concentrate in and damage the neurones and glial cells of the brain. It can not be excluded that this, (especially after many years intense use) may promote the development of autoimmune and neuro-degenerative diseases, and we conclude that the suppliers of mobile communication – and our politicians – have an extensive responsibility to support the exploration of these possible risks for the users and the society. This is especially true for the new and hitherto barely examined 3G technique which sends microwaves of a different character, and it is quite possible that the biological effects of 3G differ from those of GSM.

Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies in b6c3f1/n mice exposed to whole-body radio frequency radiation at a frequency (1,900 mhz) and modulations (gsm and cdma) used by cell phones
There were higher rates of survival in males at the low (2.5 W/kg) and mid (5 W/kg) exposures to CDMA- and GSM-modulated RFR, respectively. Body weights in the exposed groups of animals were similar to their controls. In both studies (GSM and CDMA), there were higher incidences of malignant lymphoma in all groups of female mice exposed to RFR compared to controls. However, the incidences in all of the exposed females were within the range historically observed in this strain of mouse in other NTP studies. There were higher incidences of skin and lung tumors in males exposed to the highest two levels of GSM-modulated RFR (5 and 10 W/kg), and of liver tumors at the mid-dose (5 W/kg) of CDMA-modulated RFR.
Conclusions: For GSM-modulated RFR, we conclude that exposure to RFR may have caused tumors in the skin and lungs of male mice and malignant lymphomas in female mice. For CDMA-modulated RFR, we conclude that exposure to RFR may have caused tumors in the liver of male mice and malignant lymphomas in female mice.

Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies in Hsd:Sprague Dawley sd rats exposed to whole-body radio frequency radiation at a frequency (900 MHz) and modulations (gsm and cdma) used by cell phones
In males for both GSM- and CDMA-modulated RFR, we conclude that exposures increased the number of animals with tumors in the heart. Tumors of the brain were also considered to be related to exposure; and increased numbers of male rats with tumors of the adrenal gland were also related to exposure. We are uncertain whether occurrences of prostate gland, pituitary gland, and pancreatic islet tumors in male rats exposed to GSM-modulated RFR and pituitary gland and liver tumors in male rats exposed to CDMA-modulated RFR were related to RFR exposures. This was also the case with female rats, where we conclude that exposure to GSM- or CDMA-modulated RFR may have been related to tumors in the heart. For females exposed to CDMA-modulated RFR, occurrences of brain and adrenal gland tumors may have been related to exposure.

Report of final results regarding brain and heart tumors in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed from prenatal life until natural death to mobile phone radiofrequency field representative of a 1.8 GHz GSM base station environmental emission
A statistically significant increase in the incidence of heart Schwannomas was observed in treated male rats at the highest dose (50 V/m). Furthermore, an increase in the incidence of heart Schwann cells hyperplasia was observed in treated male and female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although this was not statistically significant. An increase in the incidence of malignant glial tumors was observed in treated female rats at the highest dose (50 V/m), although not statistically significant.
The RI findings on far field exposure to RFR are consistent with and reinforce the results of the NTP study on near field exposure, as both reported an increase in the incidence of tumors of the brain and heart in RFR-exposed Sprague-Dawley rats. These tumors are of the same histotype of those observed in some epidemiological studies on cell phone users. These experimental studies provide sufficient evidence to call for the re-evaluation of IARC conclusions regarding the carcinogenic potential of RFR in humans.

Mobile Phone Mast Effects on Common Frog (Rana temporaria) Tadpoles: The City Turned into a Laboratory
These results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.

The incidence of electromagnetic pollution on the amphibian decline: Is this an important piece of the puzzle?
Electromagnetic pollution (in the microwaveand in the radiofrequency range) is a possible cause for deformations and decline of some amphibianpopulations. Keeping in mind that amphibians are reliable bio-indicators, it is of great importance tocarry out studies on the effects of this new type of contamination.

Changes in honeybee behaviour and biology under the influence of cellphone radiations
We have compared the performance of honeybees in cellphone radiation exposed and unexposed colonies. A significant (p < 0.05) decline in colony strength and in the egg laying rate of the queen was observed. The behaviour of exposed foragers was negatively influenced by the exposure, there was neither honey nor pollen in the colony at the end of the experiment.

BEES, BIRDS AND MANKIND Destroying Nature by ‘Electrosmog’
To summarise, we can answer the question as to whether subjective reports of illness have an objective basis as follows: The redox balanceis disturbed via the direct influence of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields on the NADH oxidase. The result is oxidative/nitrosative stress. It leads to disruptions and prevention of vital functions. In the course of these processes, exactly those disease symptoms subjectively described by those affected and exposed to radiated fields, are in evidence.
The various problems disappear if the influence of the radiation or the ROS/RNS formation is “switched off” (e.g. ABELIN 1999, ABELIN et al. 1995, HORNIG et al. 2001, PETROV1970, TNO study 2004).
Health is not, however, restored if the disruptions have already led to serious damage such as DNA destruction or tumours.

Effects of artificial microwaves on plants

Review: Weak radiofrequency radiation exposure from mobile phone radiation on plants
Our analysis demonstrates that the data from a substantial amount of the studies on RF-EMFs from mobile phones show physiological and/or morphological effects (89.9%, p < 0.001). Additionally, our analysis of the results from these reported studies demonstrates that the maize, roselle, pea, fenugreek, duckweeds, tomato, onions and mungbean plants seem to be very sensitive to RF-EMFs. Our findings also suggest that plants seem to be more responsive to certain frequencies, especially the frequencies between (i) 800 and 1500 MHz (p < 0.0001), (ii) 1500 and 2400 MHz (p < 0.0001) and (iii) 3500 and 8000 MHz (p = 0.0161)

Radio frequency electromagnetic field (900 MHz) induces oxidative damage to DNA and biomembrane in tobacco shoot cells (Nicotiana tabacum)
These results suggest that short-term exposure to 900 MHz EMF has genotoxic effect but harshly interrupts plasma biomembrane integrity as well. Plant model system proved to be sensitive biomarkers of RF-EMF exposure.